Dr T P Sasikumar
Anusha Durga
Since India stands number one in the list of world’s biggest
gold consumer, Gem and jewellery industry is one of the fastest growing
industries of the Indian economy. This industry hence provides numerous career
opportunities in various fields to those who want to be a part of this industry.
The following are the career options:

Those with an
eye for perfection and detailing, patience, having ability to concentrate and
good sense for design can opt for this field. Jewellery designers have the
choice of working with the export units or jewellery showrooms. Designing
jewellery for men and celebrities is also a good option for those who are
talented, highly skilled and vibrant. Also designers can work on freelance basis
by selling their designs to various firms.

All those
who are interested in Gemology can begin their career with gem identification,
gem cutting, sorting, grading and evaluation.
Since 9 out of every 10n
diamonds sold worldwide are cut and polished in India, diamond industry too provides a great

With the entry of big corporates like
TATA and Reliance in the jewellery sector, more and more consumers are growing brand
conscious. Retaining old customers and attracting new customers by the way of
providing personalized products and services is where industry growing conscious
about. Marketing may also include the packaging

After acquiring some experience in this
field the research scholar's option can be taken up as a career. Various
jewellery houses, export units and the institutions offering jewellery designing
/making and gemology courses do invest in research in this field.
Anusha Durga
Deriving its origin from the Czech word robota, meaning forced labour; robots are the helping hands everyone has always wished for.Though the first thing that comes to mind vis-a-vis a robot is an imitation of a human from Star Wars, the Terminator or Star Trek it's not always a man versus machine game. Robots we encounter in our daily lives are those that perform tasks that are too dangerous, boring or onerous, thus being the helping hands.
With over a million types of robots, their presence is seen in almost every industry especially the auto, medical, manufacturing and space industry. Robots are used in industries for speeding up the manufacturing process. They are also used in the fields of nuclear science, sea exploration, servicing of transmission signals and bio-medical equipment design.
Created as a result of the perfect blend of the human imagination and technological developments, robots can be described better as mechanical devices that are capable of performing a variety of complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance. It is an artificial agent guided by computer or electric programming and is able to do tasks on its own.
A combination of intelligence, energy, movement and senses, robots require these characteristics to fulfil their purpose. The branch of study that develops these robots is robotic engineering. It deals with design and application of robots and the use of computer for their manipulation and processing.
Professor Patricia H. Reiff, director, Rice Space Institute and a professor at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, while highlighting new career trends says, "Robotics is very critical these days and one of the most upcoming career options. The expansion in space research these days will also boost robotics and its development."
To follow this career and develop an interest in robotics, an engineering background is a must. Mechatronics is the area of knowledge and practice interfacing mechanical and electronics engineering. Robotics is a subset of mechatronics, which involves automated machinery and components that move. Robotics being an inter-disciplinary course prefers students who have completed their graduation in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation engineering or computer engineering with an interest in robotics and artificial intelligence.
Though the specialisation is offered at an undergraduate level in a few private engineering colleges across the country, it is not the preferred choice. The popularity and growing demand for robotics is at the Master's level.
A course in robotics trains and educates a student in the field of artificial intelligence, computer-aided manufacturing, computer integrated manufacturing system, computational geometry, robot motion planning, digital electronics and micro processing. The different facets of building a robot include working on developing the hardware, software, intelligence control and adaptive control of this machine.
Robotics is not all about designing the robots. Its maintenance, developing new applications and conducting research are equally important. Specialising in design and control in robotics is close to mechanical engineering. For hardware design of robots, a B.Tech. in electrical or electronics and communication engineering forms a good base.
Computer engineers can look at hardware design in robotics and the controls part requires aspects of electrical engineering. This field also requires the application of computer-integrated manufacturing, mechanical engineering, electrical and software engineering and biological mechanics.
In India, work on robotics began in educational institutions and research centres such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and the Indian Institute of Science. Now this field is the preferred choice of many budding engineers and contests are held among students across the country to encourage talent.
Robotics engineering can be studied at the IITs in Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A few other institutes that offer this specialisation are the National Institute of Technology, University of Hyderabad, Jadavpur University and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science.
A specialisation in robotics is a popular choice for students going abroad to study. This field offers job opportunities and a robotics engineer can apply his mastery in diverse fields like modern warfare, surgery, nano-technology and space-exploration. Many funding programmes and scholarships are available for research and PhD. students. Developing a robot comes with the goal of finding a solution to the problem. Along with the technical know-how, interest in research is essential. This field has no boundaries and will continue to grow until the machines take over!
Dr T P Sasikumar
Anusha Durga

Photography is a creative medium of expression, though today with the enormous growth in mass communication, it has become a profession with great commercial value. With a history of over hundred years behind it, photography has seen a lot of technological changes and evolved from the days of pinhole cameras to present day digital cameras.

Photographers generally specialise in one specific area like fashion photography or wild life photography. They have the option to either take up jobs with some news agency, or advertising agency or work as free lancers. Photography being a creative medium requires more of inherent talent for success than tutored learning. A person endowed with good visual imagination, a sense of observation, an eye for detailed composition along with business sense can make a successful photographer. Professional photographers specialise in their area of work. The different areas of specialisation in photography include: Editorial Photographers, Portrait Photographers, Feature Photographers, Fashion Photographers, Advertising Photographers etc.

Educational Qualification:

Photography is basically a creative field and success in this field is dependent more on the inherent qualities of creativity than formal training. Therefore formal training as such is not a pre-requisite for entry into this field. However training hones the inherent skills and helps to rise in this increasingly competitive and specialized field. Moreover use of high tech equipments in photography, has made training desirable.

Quite a large number of institutes, including those recognized by the government, offer certificate and diploma courses in photography. The courses vary from six months to three years in duration depending upon the institution.  Design Courses at National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad have photography as a subject. Indian Institute of Mass Communication and Jamia Millia Islamia University at New Delhi are other well-known institutes offering courses in photography. The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in collaboration with the International College of Professional Photography, Australia has introduced an international photography course. The course started in July’2000 at NIFT centers in Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai. The duration of the course is 6 months (3 days a week) and selection is through personal interview.
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Travel and Tourism is the world’s largest industry in terms of employment and second to oil industry in terms of turnover. It is a service-based industry and requires professionals and specialists skilled in various disciplines. The industry broadly covers the following areas:
  • Hotels restaurants and tourist complexes 
  • Travel agencies, tour operators
  • Transport facilities for tourists 
  • Amusement, entertainment and sports units for tourist 
  • Units providing cultural, adventure and wildlife experiences to tourist.
The Department of Tourism under the Central Government is the nodal agency for the formulation of national policies and programs and is assisted by the Director-General of Tourism, with offices in India and abroad. The State Directorates of Tourism are responsible for the publicizing and promoting travel within India for domestic tourists. The Tourism Finance Corporation of India has been set up to meet the loan requirements of the tourism industry.
The work in the industry essentially involves providing services like boarding, lodging and travelling to people who are away from home, either on business or on holiday. The two most important activities related to the industry are therefore accommodation and travelling i.e. hotel industry and travel trade. The Hotel Industry has been discussed separately. Under travel trade we would be looking at the major tasks or duties performed by Travel Agents and Tour Operators.
Career prospects in Travel and Tourism are extremely encouraging. The number of international tourists has increased from 70 million in 1960 to 700 million by the year 2000. As per World Tourism Organisation estimates it is going to hit 1.5 billion in the next 20 years. India share is abysmally low at half percent. In 1999 India got 2.5 million international tourists and this is expected to rise up to six million by 2010.Annualy the industry earns Rs 14,000 crore in foreign exchange for the exchequer.
Education Qualification:
Simple graduates, with the requisite personal attributes can gain entry into this industry. However, with the growing professionalism in every field including travel and tourism, aspirants for a career in this field should take specialized training, so as to give themselves an edge in the job market. 
There are a number of good institutions, which offer training courses in different aspects of travel and tourism. The Indian Institute of Travel and Tourism Management (IITM) is one such institute, which runs a 24-month diploma course in Tourism Management at Gwalior. Graduates of not more than 28 years of age are eligible to enroll in the course after qualifying the entrance exam. Other courses offered by the institute include destination management, language courses, wildlife tourism management etc. The IITM through its chapter at Delhi, Lucknow and Thiruvananthapuram has been conducting management development programs. The Delhi chapter of the institute also offers many short term courses like Basic Course on Computer Application in Tourism and Travel Agency; Basic Course on Air Travel Fares and Ticketing; Basic course in Airlines, Travel Agency and Tour Operation Management and Foreign Language Courses.
Two year PG courses and one year PG Diploma (part time or
correspondence) are available at various universities/institutes. Indira
Gandhi National Open University conducts Bachelor in Tourism Studies through
distance education for 10+2 pass. Jamia Millia Islamia Delhi offers two-year PG
diploma program in Cultural Heritage and Tourism. Number of Universities like
Delhi University offers tourism as a subject.
Anusha Durga

Banking plays a very important role in any economy. The Banking Sector in India has witnessed many changes from the nationalization of the banks in late sixties to their striving to be in business, in the post liberalized era, in face of the
competition from foreign banks. The recommendations of the Narasimham Committee on Banking Reforms, which have been accepted by the government, are being implemented in phased manner to increase the measure of their competitive efficiency and to make them globally competitive. The fiscal reforms and the IT wave have vastly improved the existing services and introduced many new facilities in the country like tele-banking, credit cards, electronic clearance etc for the first time. In most metropolitan banks, computers are replacing unwieldy ledgers, and more and more banks are offering facilities like Internet banking.

Apart from regular banking operation, termed as ‘house-keeping’, commercial banks are now diversifying and giving thrust to areas like corporate banking, merchant banking, investment banking and treasury and forex functions. Besides growing income, economic liberalization, has resulted in increased volumes of
international trade, and these factors together have given impetus to the demand for better banking facilities which are at par with international standards. There is thus an increasing demand for professionals in the banking
sector. A career in banking sector therefore holds great promise for those with
the right qualifications and its no wonder that a job with a foreign bank is highly coveted by students from top management institutes.
In India Reserve Bank of India is at the apex of the banking structure. It plays the role of a regulator and monitors the functioning of commercial banks. Along with Ministry of Finance it lays down the broad parameters of the country’s monetary policy. It also issues guidelines and procedural instructions to all financial institutions and banks. Functioning of the Reserve Bank of India is therefore totally different. The remaining are mainly commercial banks, which function on more or less on the same line. There are banks specialising in a particular area like the Exim Band and NABARD. In addition to these there are financial institutions like ICICI, IDBI and IFCI that are related to the banking industry and those working in the banking sector may also have openings in such organisations.

Educational Qualification:

The Reserve Bank Services Board conducts an examination on the all India basis for recruitment of class I Officers. Graduate/ postgraduates/CA’s/MBA’s in the
21-26 year age group are eligible to take the examination.
Central Recruitment Board (SBI) and the Banking Services Recruitment Board (BSRB) recruit Probationary Officers for State Bank of India, and its associate banks, and other nationalized banks respectively, through competitive exam comprising of written test followed by an interview. Graduates in any discipline can take these exams. The upper age limit is 28 for SBI and 26 for other nationalized banks.
Private Banks and Foreign Banks advertise their posts in leading newspapers. However in management cadres, positions are largely filled through campus recruitment at management institutions. Freshers are taken as trainees for a period of six months to one year and thereafter confirmed as Assistant Managers.
Professionals from streams like law, engineering, agriculture also have opening in the management cadre of various banks.  Lawyers in banks advise on laws and regulations affecting the operations of the institution. Engineers work with industries and businesses on behalf of the bank. Computer Professionals are also in great demand for planning, programming and maintaining computers and other electronic equipments. Candidates, with a background in agriculture science, are recruited in the area of agri-banking. Postgraduates and doctorates in Economics can find direct recruitment as grade ‘B’ or ‘A’ officer in RBI.