Dr T P Sasikumar
Anusha Durga
Since India stands number one in the list of world’s biggest
gold consumer, Gem and jewellery industry is one of the fastest growing
industries of the Indian economy. This industry hence provides numerous career
opportunities in various fields to those who want to be a part of this industry.
The following are the career options:

Those with an
eye for perfection and detailing, patience, having ability to concentrate and
good sense for design can opt for this field. Jewellery designers have the
choice of working with the export units or jewellery showrooms. Designing
jewellery for men and celebrities is also a good option for those who are
talented, highly skilled and vibrant. Also designers can work on freelance basis
by selling their designs to various firms.

All those
who are interested in Gemology can begin their career with gem identification,
gem cutting, sorting, grading and evaluation.
Since 9 out of every 10n
diamonds sold worldwide are cut and polished in India, diamond industry too provides a great

With the entry of big corporates like
TATA and Reliance in the jewellery sector, more and more consumers are growing brand
conscious. Retaining old customers and attracting new customers by the way of
providing personalized products and services is where industry growing conscious
about. Marketing may also include the packaging

After acquiring some experience in this
field the research scholar's option can be taken up as a career. Various
jewellery houses, export units and the institutions offering jewellery designing
/making and gemology courses do invest in research in this field.
Anusha Durga
Deriving its origin from the Czech word robota, meaning forced labour; robots are the helping hands everyone has always wished for.Though the first thing that comes to mind vis-a-vis a robot is an imitation of a human from Star Wars, the Terminator or Star Trek it's not always a man versus machine game. Robots we encounter in our daily lives are those that perform tasks that are too dangerous, boring or onerous, thus being the helping hands.
With over a million types of robots, their presence is seen in almost every industry especially the auto, medical, manufacturing and space industry. Robots are used in industries for speeding up the manufacturing process. They are also used in the fields of nuclear science, sea exploration, servicing of transmission signals and bio-medical equipment design.
Created as a result of the perfect blend of the human imagination and technological developments, robots can be described better as mechanical devices that are capable of performing a variety of complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance. It is an artificial agent guided by computer or electric programming and is able to do tasks on its own.
A combination of intelligence, energy, movement and senses, robots require these characteristics to fulfil their purpose. The branch of study that develops these robots is robotic engineering. It deals with design and application of robots and the use of computer for their manipulation and processing.
Professor Patricia H. Reiff, director, Rice Space Institute and a professor at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, while highlighting new career trends says, "Robotics is very critical these days and one of the most upcoming career options. The expansion in space research these days will also boost robotics and its development."
To follow this career and develop an interest in robotics, an engineering background is a must. Mechatronics is the area of knowledge and practice interfacing mechanical and electronics engineering. Robotics is a subset of mechatronics, which involves automated machinery and components that move. Robotics being an inter-disciplinary course prefers students who have completed their graduation in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, instrumentation engineering or computer engineering with an interest in robotics and artificial intelligence.
Though the specialisation is offered at an undergraduate level in a few private engineering colleges across the country, it is not the preferred choice. The popularity and growing demand for robotics is at the Master's level.
A course in robotics trains and educates a student in the field of artificial intelligence, computer-aided manufacturing, computer integrated manufacturing system, computational geometry, robot motion planning, digital electronics and micro processing. The different facets of building a robot include working on developing the hardware, software, intelligence control and adaptive control of this machine.
Robotics is not all about designing the robots. Its maintenance, developing new applications and conducting research are equally important. Specialising in design and control in robotics is close to mechanical engineering. For hardware design of robots, a B.Tech. in electrical or electronics and communication engineering forms a good base.
Computer engineers can look at hardware design in robotics and the controls part requires aspects of electrical engineering. This field also requires the application of computer-integrated manufacturing, mechanical engineering, electrical and software engineering and biological mechanics.
In India, work on robotics began in educational institutions and research centres such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and the Indian Institute of Science. Now this field is the preferred choice of many budding engineers and contests are held among students across the country to encourage talent.
Robotics engineering can be studied at the IITs in Mumbai, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. A few other institutes that offer this specialisation are the National Institute of Technology, University of Hyderabad, Jadavpur University and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science.
A specialisation in robotics is a popular choice for students going abroad to study. This field offers job opportunities and a robotics engineer can apply his mastery in diverse fields like modern warfare, surgery, nano-technology and space-exploration. Many funding programmes and scholarships are available for research and PhD. students. Developing a robot comes with the goal of finding a solution to the problem. Along with the technical know-how, interest in research is essential. This field has no boundaries and will continue to grow until the machines take over!
Dr T P Sasikumar
Anusha Durga

Photography is a creative medium of expression, though today with the enormous growth in mass communication, it has become a profession with great commercial value. With a history of over hundred years behind it, photography has seen a lot of technological changes and evolved from the days of pinhole cameras to present day digital cameras.

Photographers generally specialise in one specific area like fashion photography or wild life photography. They have the option to either take up jobs with some news agency, or advertising agency or work as free lancers. Photography being a creative medium requires more of inherent talent for success than tutored learning. A person endowed with good visual imagination, a sense of observation, an eye for detailed composition along with business sense can make a successful photographer. Professional photographers specialise in their area of work. The different areas of specialisation in photography include: Editorial Photographers, Portrait Photographers, Feature Photographers, Fashion Photographers, Advertising Photographers etc.

Educational Qualification:

Photography is basically a creative field and success in this field is dependent more on the inherent qualities of creativity than formal training. Therefore formal training as such is not a pre-requisite for entry into this field. However training hones the inherent skills and helps to rise in this increasingly competitive and specialized field. Moreover use of high tech equipments in photography, has made training desirable.

Quite a large number of institutes, including those recognized by the government, offer certificate and diploma courses in photography. The courses vary from six months to three years in duration depending upon the institution.  Design Courses at National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad have photography as a subject. Indian Institute of Mass Communication and Jamia Millia Islamia University at New Delhi are other well-known institutes offering courses in photography. The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in collaboration with the International College of Professional Photography, Australia has introduced an international photography course. The course started in July’2000 at NIFT centers in Delhi, Bangalore and Mumbai. The duration of the course is 6 months (3 days a week) and selection is through personal interview.
Anusha Durga
Travel and Tourism is the world’s largest industry in terms of employment and second to oil industry in terms of turnover. It is a service-based industry and requires professionals and specialists skilled in various disciplines. The industry broadly covers the following areas:
  • Hotels restaurants and tourist complexes 
  • Travel agencies, tour operators
  • Transport facilities for tourists 
  • Amusement, entertainment and sports units for tourist 
  • Units providing cultural, adventure and wildlife experiences to tourist.
The Department of Tourism under the Central Government is the nodal agency for the formulation of national policies and programs and is assisted by the Director-General of Tourism, with offices in India and abroad. The State Directorates of Tourism are responsible for the publicizing and promoting travel within India for domestic tourists. The Tourism Finance Corporation of India has been set up to meet the loan requirements of the tourism industry.
The work in the industry essentially involves providing services like boarding, lodging and travelling to people who are away from home, either on business or on holiday. The two most important activities related to the industry are therefore accommodation and travelling i.e. hotel industry and travel trade. The Hotel Industry has been discussed separately. Under travel trade we would be looking at the major tasks or duties performed by Travel Agents and Tour Operators.
Career prospects in Travel and Tourism are extremely encouraging. The number of international tourists has increased from 70 million in 1960 to 700 million by the year 2000. As per World Tourism Organisation estimates it is going to hit 1.5 billion in the next 20 years. India share is abysmally low at half percent. In 1999 India got 2.5 million international tourists and this is expected to rise up to six million by 2010.Annualy the industry earns Rs 14,000 crore in foreign exchange for the exchequer.
Education Qualification:
Simple graduates, with the requisite personal attributes can gain entry into this industry. However, with the growing professionalism in every field including travel and tourism, aspirants for a career in this field should take specialized training, so as to give themselves an edge in the job market. 
There are a number of good institutions, which offer training courses in different aspects of travel and tourism. The Indian Institute of Travel and Tourism Management (IITM) is one such institute, which runs a 24-month diploma course in Tourism Management at Gwalior. Graduates of not more than 28 years of age are eligible to enroll in the course after qualifying the entrance exam. Other courses offered by the institute include destination management, language courses, wildlife tourism management etc. The IITM through its chapter at Delhi, Lucknow and Thiruvananthapuram has been conducting management development programs. The Delhi chapter of the institute also offers many short term courses like Basic Course on Computer Application in Tourism and Travel Agency; Basic Course on Air Travel Fares and Ticketing; Basic course in Airlines, Travel Agency and Tour Operation Management and Foreign Language Courses.
Two year PG courses and one year PG Diploma (part time or
correspondence) are available at various universities/institutes. Indira
Gandhi National Open University conducts Bachelor in Tourism Studies through
distance education for 10+2 pass. Jamia Millia Islamia Delhi offers two-year PG
diploma program in Cultural Heritage and Tourism. Number of Universities like
Delhi University offers tourism as a subject.
Anusha Durga

Banking plays a very important role in any economy. The Banking Sector in India has witnessed many changes from the nationalization of the banks in late sixties to their striving to be in business, in the post liberalized era, in face of the
competition from foreign banks. The recommendations of the Narasimham Committee on Banking Reforms, which have been accepted by the government, are being implemented in phased manner to increase the measure of their competitive efficiency and to make them globally competitive. The fiscal reforms and the IT wave have vastly improved the existing services and introduced many new facilities in the country like tele-banking, credit cards, electronic clearance etc for the first time. In most metropolitan banks, computers are replacing unwieldy ledgers, and more and more banks are offering facilities like Internet banking.

Apart from regular banking operation, termed as ‘house-keeping’, commercial banks are now diversifying and giving thrust to areas like corporate banking, merchant banking, investment banking and treasury and forex functions. Besides growing income, economic liberalization, has resulted in increased volumes of
international trade, and these factors together have given impetus to the demand for better banking facilities which are at par with international standards. There is thus an increasing demand for professionals in the banking
sector. A career in banking sector therefore holds great promise for those with
the right qualifications and its no wonder that a job with a foreign bank is highly coveted by students from top management institutes.
In India Reserve Bank of India is at the apex of the banking structure. It plays the role of a regulator and monitors the functioning of commercial banks. Along with Ministry of Finance it lays down the broad parameters of the country’s monetary policy. It also issues guidelines and procedural instructions to all financial institutions and banks. Functioning of the Reserve Bank of India is therefore totally different. The remaining are mainly commercial banks, which function on more or less on the same line. There are banks specialising in a particular area like the Exim Band and NABARD. In addition to these there are financial institutions like ICICI, IDBI and IFCI that are related to the banking industry and those working in the banking sector may also have openings in such organisations.

Educational Qualification:

The Reserve Bank Services Board conducts an examination on the all India basis for recruitment of class I Officers. Graduate/ postgraduates/CA’s/MBA’s in the
21-26 year age group are eligible to take the examination.
Central Recruitment Board (SBI) and the Banking Services Recruitment Board (BSRB) recruit Probationary Officers for State Bank of India, and its associate banks, and other nationalized banks respectively, through competitive exam comprising of written test followed by an interview. Graduates in any discipline can take these exams. The upper age limit is 28 for SBI and 26 for other nationalized banks.
Private Banks and Foreign Banks advertise their posts in leading newspapers. However in management cadres, positions are largely filled through campus recruitment at management institutions. Freshers are taken as trainees for a period of six months to one year and thereafter confirmed as Assistant Managers.
Professionals from streams like law, engineering, agriculture also have opening in the management cadre of various banks.  Lawyers in banks advise on laws and regulations affecting the operations of the institution. Engineers work with industries and businesses on behalf of the bank. Computer Professionals are also in great demand for planning, programming and maintaining computers and other electronic equipments. Candidates, with a background in agriculture science, are recruited in the area of agri-banking. Postgraduates and doctorates in Economics can find direct recruitment as grade ‘B’ or ‘A’ officer in RBI.
Anusha Durga

Teaching as a profession has its identity in India since the time `gurukuls’ were in vogue.  It is one of the most respected professions and truly so, since fate of any nation depends largely on its human resource and the better skilled and educated are its people, the better are the prospects of development and prosperity. Abysmally low rate of literacy is responsible for the major problems like poverty and overpopulation in our country.

Teaching as a profession has undergone a radical change and become very specialized. There are teachers specially trained for pre-nursery, primary, secondary, and senior secondary levels. Specially trained teachers at all levels teach Art and Craft, Music, Physical Education and different subjects. Keeping in view the low literacy rate in the country, in recent years government educational policy has been more focused towards primary education, adult education, extension education and distance education programs to bring learning within the reach of all. However despite being among the largest professions in India, the education system as whole leaves much to be desired. With large number of the population still remaining illiterate after more than 50 years of independence, the challenge for educationists really remains daunting.

Other than providing immense job satisfaction to those who are really interested in imparting knowledge and dispelling ignorance, a secure professional career with barely any liability of transfer can be other important reasons for joining this profession. Besides benefits such as subsidized fees for children, regular annual vacations, etc. makes a career in teaching appealing especially to women.

Educational Qualification:

Formal training for teaching at primary level and secondary level has become almost compulsory. Most polytechnics and vocational training centers conduct training for pre-primary teachers. The preferred eligibility is class XIIth with
50% marks in aggregate.

At the secondary level, teachers are required to possess a degree in teaching/education. The Bachelor of Education degree is one-year training course for graduates of any discipline. Teachers having B.Ed degree after graduation are called Graduate Trained Teachers (TGT) and those doing B.Ed. after post graduation are called Post Graduate Trained Teachers (PGT). There are separate institutions for special teachers such as teachers of the blind, deaf and dumb, mentally retarded, craft, music etc. These courses are also available through correspondence for employed graduate teachers. For senior secondary level PGTs are preferred.

As per the latest guidelines issued by University Grants Commission (UGC) in
subjects other than fine arts, management, engineering and technology, M.Phil
in a subject is required for appointment as a lecturer at the university level
and promotions depend on further qualifications.  Otherwise a good academic record with at least 55% or an equivalent grade at master’s degree level in the relevant subject from an Indian University or an equivalent degree from a foreign University is needed. Eligibility tests for lecturers (NET) are conducted by UGC. Details on this exam are available under ‘examinations in India’.
Anusha Durga

Company Secretary is an important member of corporate management and acts as an advisor to the management of a company on legal and business matters.

Appointment of a full time Company Secretary by a company having paid-up capital of 50 lakhs or more is a statutory requirement under the companies Act. Also, all companies seeking listing on stock exchange are required to have a full-time Company Secretary. Membership of the Institute of Company Secretaries of India is the only prescribed qualification for appointment as Company Secretary in such companies.

Company Secretary is an indispensable professional in the efficient management of an organization, whose affairs are conducted by board of directors or a council or any other corporate structure. Besides, Department of Personnel and
Administrative Reforms of the Central Government empanels company secretaries for assignment to the developing countries of Asia Africa and Latin America.
A freshly qualified candidate may join a company as an Assistant Company Secretary, or Deputy Company Secretary depending upon the size of the company and rise to the level of Company Secretary/Financial Controller. By the virtue of their experience and academic background they can even reach the level of whole time directors in a company.
Educational Qualification:

Membership of the Institute of the Company Secretaries of India, headquartered in New Delhi with regional offices at Calcutta, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi, is the only prescribed qualification for entry into this profession. Membership is granted after clearing the preliminary or foundation, intermediate and final examinations conducted by the institute.

Students who have passed 10+2 in any discipline can enrol for the foundation course. However graduates in any discipline, other than fine arts, or those who have qualified the final examination of the Institute of Chartered Accountant of India (ICAI) or the Institute of Costs and Works Accountants of India (ICWAI) can directly enrol for the intermediate examination.

Admission to the foundation course is open throughout the year. The duration of the course is 8 months excluding the months of admission and examination. Students taking admission up to March can take the examination in December the same year. However those taking admission after March can take the examination only in June the following year. The fee for the foundation course is Rs 1200.

The institute imparts compulsory postal tuition. Students are provided with study material on each subject at the time of admission. In addition, students also have the option to attend oral coaching classes organized by the institute at
select places through its regional councils and chapters on payment of extra fees. Only students who have successfully completed the postal/oral coaching are eligible for admission to the examination. A student has to register for each of the examination at least nine months prior to the month in which the
examination is held.

Registration for the Intermediate Examination is open throughout the year. Minimum amount payable along with the application for registration is presently Rs. 2,250.Candidates seeking exemption from the Foundation examination are required to pay postal tuition fee @ Rs. 100 per subject in addition, for those subject (s) in the foundation course which they had not studied at the graduate or post graduate level. It is important to note that a candidate is registered for five years for the main course, and it is compulsory to clear the intermediate and final examinations within this time period.
The fee for the entire course is Rs 2250 for commerce graduates and Rs 2650 for non-commerce graduates. For the final examination sum of Rs 1500 is payable separately as postal tuition fee in addition to the exam fee @ Rs 350 per group.

Both the intermediate and final examinations are held twice every year in June and December. A student is admitted to the Final examination only after a minimum period of nine calendar months has elapsed since his passing the Intermediate examination. The last dates for receipt of enrolment applications for examination in the Institute are as follows:
 (i)   25th March (up to 9th April with late fee of Rs. 100) for June examination
(ii)  25th Sept.  (up to 10th Oct with late fee of Rs. 100) for December examination.

The study program for getting the membership of the institute also includes practical training, which has to be in one of the following areas.  Chartered Accountants are however given exemption.
  • Apprenticeship under a practicing Company Secretary or with a Company Secretary firm for one-year full time or two year part time. 
  • Three years of teaching experience in law, management or accounts. 
  • Two years experience as an executive or three years experience as an assistant in secretarial, administration, finance, accounts, personnel or legal department in a firm with either paid up capital of Rs 25 lakhs or fixed
     assets of not less than Rs 50 lakhs. 

  • Experience as a Gazetted Officer in the Central/State Government for three years. 
  • Three years experience as an advocate in a high court having rendered services as counsel/advisor to a company of the size specified above.

In addition to the practical experience, a candidate while completing the final examination must undergo four moths training in the following departments of a firm having a paid up capital of Rs 25 lakhs.  
  • One month in the secretarial department including the shares and legal
  • One month in the finance department including costing, management accounting, internal audit, taxation. 
  • One month in the administration department.
  • Fifteen days secretarial training program designed by the institute.

Fifteen days training in a specialized agency such as stock exchange, or banking
institution or management consultancy firm. 
More details about institute and the examinations are available at the
website www.icsi-india.com.
Queries may also be posted at the edp@icsi-india.com

Anusha Durga

Journalism is concerned with collection and dissemination of news through the print media as well as theelectronic media. Journalism has a long and well-established tradition inIndia. The Indian press has always been vigilant towards safeguarding the democratic values in the country and fearless in reporting even at times likee mergency when attempts were made to thwart its freedom.

The information revolution has made the job of a journalist more challenging. Simple reporting of events is no more sufficient. There is now more specialization and professionalism in news reporting. Communication media as such, has become more accessible and caters to various groups of readers with diverse tastes. An ordinary newspaper today has exclusive sections devoted to topics like fashion, films, culture, education etc.

Journalists work in diverse areas, such as politics, finance and economics, culture and sports for newspapers and periodicals besides radio and television networks carry their stories and reports. They do not just inform but analyze an issue or a news item or an incident and influence people’s opinion on them. They wield an enormous influence on the society and therefore journalism is also referred to as the Fourth Estate.

The scope in journalism is increasing especially with the diversification of the media. More than 60% of the Indian population (i.e. more than half a billion people!!) over the age of 14 are exposed to one or the other kind of media, giving immense challenge to those interested in media related careers. With over 25,000 newspapers/periodicals/magazines/ journals in the print medium, a network of government and commercial radio channels as well as the national and private TV networks etc., the challenge for journalists is evident. Vernacular press has also grown in strength in the past few years with the growing awareness and literacy amongst people. The information explosion has brought in more competitiveness and the reader or the viewer has gained the most by it as he gets the news and viewpoints quickly and concisely, more than ever before.

Educational Qualification:

Formal training is not an absolute necessity for pursuing a career in journalism. Anyone with inherent qualities like flair in writing, ability to express oneself lucidly and clearly and wide-ranging interests along with a good academic background has a fair chance to succeed in journalism.  Many publications take such fresh graduates in various fields and give them vocational training.

However various institutions around the country offer courses in journalism. These courses are usually part of a wider program on mass communication studies. Some universities also offer degree courses in journalism at undergraduate or postgraduate level. Entry into these courses varies from institute to institute but generally graduation in any discipline is the minimum qualification. Duration also varies but is normally one academic year.
Anusha Durga

Oceanography is closely related with Geology and Geophysics. These scientists study the influence of Oceans on land and its potential in providing rich natural resources. It is a multidisciplinary science comprising of various specialized branches like Physical Oceanography, Chemical Oceanography etc. Government of India established the Department of Ocean Development in 1981. The role of the department has been to pursue research and development activities in all branches of ocean science.

Educational Qualification:

The study of oceanography is offered at the postgraduate level in subjects options related to the various branches of its study, like marine biology, marine geology, physical oceanography, marine chemistry etc. Graduates in pure sciences are enrolled in these courses.
Anusha Durga

Civil Services constitute all non-military departments of the government machinery, which run State Administration. The Central and the State Civil Servants ensure that the constitutional guarantees and entitlements are brought within the reach of every citizen. In the present era of market economy Civil Services has lost some of its sparkle, nonetheless it still ranks high as a career option among young students. The power and social status along with job security that a civil servant enjoys is unimaginable anywhere else. Besides the lure for power and perks the service provides enough scope for a dynamic person with zeal and desire to bring qualitative changes in the functioning of the
government and even opportunities which could ameliorate the lives of millions
of Indians.
The present day civil service is a legacy of the British. ICS officers during the
British Raj were bestowed with immense administrative powers and their main
tasks were preservation of law and order, dispensation of justice and collection
of taxes. However today civil servants operate within the framework of a
democratic welfare state, with focus on development and progress. Therefore,
unlike many other occupations civil service is more of a vocation than a job.

The Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) selects candidates for various central services, including for the most coveted cadres of Indian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police Service (IPS) and Indian Foreign Service (IFS). IAS and IPS are All India Services created under article 312 of the constitution. The creation of such services provides safeguards for national unity and ensures uniformity of the administrative system throughout the country to maintain the minimum common administrative standards. Candidates selected for these two services are appointed to different state cadres and as and when required they also move to Central Government jobs on deputation. The remaining services are categorised in two Central Services, Group A, and Group B. The Group ‘A’ services are:

·        Indian Railway Traffic Services (IRTS)

·        Indian Railway Accounts Services (IRAS)

·        Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)

·        Indian Railway Protection Force (IRPF)

·        Indian Postal Service

·        Indian Audit & Accounts Service (IA &AS)

·        Indian Defense Accounts Service (IDAS)

·        Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS)

·        Indian Revenue Service (IRS)

·        The Indian Information Service (IIS)

·        Indian Ordnance Factories Service (IOFS),

·        Indian Defense Estate Service (IDES),

·        The Indian P &T Accounts & Finance Service

·        Assistant Commandants in Central Industrial Security Force.

The Group B Services for which recruitment is made through civil services are the following:

·        Central Secretariat Service, (Section Officer Grade)

·        Railway Board Secretariat Service (Section Officer Grade)

·        Armed Forces Headquarters Civil Service Group B (Assistant Civilian Staff Officer Grade)

·        Customs Appraisers’ Service Group B.

·        The Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Civil Service Group B.

·        The Delhi, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli Police Service Group B.

·        Pondicherry Civil Service Group B.

Educational Qualification:
A graduate in any discipline from a recognized university or institution, between 21-28 years of age as on 1st August of the examination year, is eligible to sit for the Civil Services Examination.
The UPSC conducts the combined Civil Services Exam in three phases comprising of preliminary exam, mains and interview or the personality test, and the entire cycle well over a year to complete.   The preliminary exam is notified in December and usually held on the second Sunday of the following June. The results are declared by end of July or the first week of August.  The exam consists of two objective types multiple choice question papers. The first paper is on general studies and carries 150 marks. The second paper, called `optional’ is on the subject chosen by the candidate and carries 300 marks. Preliminary examination basically eliminates all those who are not serious or well prepared. The success rate of preliminary exam is less than 10%.

Main exam is held around November/December every year and consists of eight papers of conventional type carrying 300 marks each. Two of these are language papers, one in English and the other in any recognized Indian language chosen by the candidate. Qualifying in both these papers is compulsory, however marks obtained in them is not added in the total score, in other words performance in these papers would not effect the final position in merit.

Third and the fourth papers are on general studies and carry 600 marks. The rest of the four papers are on two optional subjects, carrying total marks of 1200. Results of the Mains are declared by February/March and those who qualify make it to the third stage of the selection process i.e. the Personality Test. The interview or the personality test carries 250 marks and is held around April/May. Final results are declared by June and successful candidates are allotted different services according to their ranks in the final list. Individual preferences of the candidates are also taken into account while allocation of service. Those who are at the top of the merit list get IAS, IPS, IFS and so on and so forth.
Dr T P Sasikumar

Indian Engineering Services

Indian Engineering Services (IES/ES) constitute of engineers that work under the government of India to manage a large segment of public sector economy which constitutes of Railroads, Public works, Power, Telecommunications, etc.

A combined competitive examination is conducted by the Union Public Services Commission (UPSC) for recruitment to the Indian Engineering Services. The Examination constitutes of a written examination followed by an interview for personality test.

For detailed instructions about Application Procedure and Examination click on one of links in the left column.

The approximate number of vacancies, for the year 2010: 434

The recruitment of qualified candidates are made under the following categories:

Category – I Civil Engineering

(i) Indian Railway Service of Engineers

(ii) Indian Railway Stores Service

(iii) Central Engineering Service

(iv) Military Engineer Service (Building and Roads Cadre)

(v) Central Water Engineering

(vii) Assistant Executive Engineer

(viii) Survey of India Service

Category – I Mechanical Engineering

(i) Indian Railway Service of Mechanical Engineers

(ii) Indian Railway Stores Service

(iii) Central Water Engineering Service

(iv) Indian Ordnance Factories Service

(v) Indian Naval Armament Service

(vi) Assistant Executive Engineer (in Ministry of Defence)

(vii) Assistant Naval Store officer Grade I in Indian Navy

(viii) Central Electrical & Mechanical Engineering Service

(ix) Assistant Executive Engineer (in Boarder Roads Engineering Service)

(x) Mechanical Engineer (in Geological Survey of India)

Category – I Electrical Engineering

(i) Indian Railway Service of Electrical Engineers

(ii) Indian Railway Stores Service

(iii) Central Electrical & Mechanical Engineering Service

(iv) Indian Naval Armament Service

(v) Military Engineer Service

(vi) Assistant Executive Engineer (in Ministry of Defence)

(vii) Assistant Naval Store (in Indian Navy)

Category – I Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering

(i) Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers

(ii) Indian Railway Stores Service

(iii) Indian Ordnance Factories Service

(iv) Indian Naval Armament Service

(v) Assistant Executive Engineer (in Ministry of Defence)

(vi) Engineer in Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing/Monitoring Organisation

(vii) Assistant Naval Stores officer (in Indian Navy)

(viii) Survey of India Service

Dr T P Sasikumar

All India Services

Indian Administrative Service (IAS)

Indian Police Service (IPS)

Central Civil Services - Group A

Indian Foreign Service (IFS)

Indian Revenue Service (IRS) - Income Tax

Indian Revenue Service (IRS) - Customes & Central Excise

Indian Audits & Accounts Service (IAAS)

Indian Post & Telecommunication Accounts and Finance Service (IP&TAFS)

Indian Railway Traffic Service (IRTS)

Indian Railway Accounts Service (IRAS)

Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

Indian Defence Accounts Service (IDAS)

Indian Defence Estate Service (IDES)

Indian Information Service (IIS)

Indian Railway Personnel Service (IRPS)

Railways Protection Force (RPF)

Central Civil Services - Group B

Union Territories Administrative Service

Union Territories Police Service

Central Secretariat Service

Defence Secretariat Service