Anusha Durga

Teaching as a profession has its identity in India since the time `gurukuls’ were in vogue.  It is one of the most respected professions and truly so, since fate of any nation depends largely on its human resource and the better skilled and educated are its people, the better are the prospects of development and prosperity. Abysmally low rate of literacy is responsible for the major problems like poverty and overpopulation in our country.

Teaching as a profession has undergone a radical change and become very specialized. There are teachers specially trained for pre-nursery, primary, secondary, and senior secondary levels. Specially trained teachers at all levels teach Art and Craft, Music, Physical Education and different subjects. Keeping in view the low literacy rate in the country, in recent years government educational policy has been more focused towards primary education, adult education, extension education and distance education programs to bring learning within the reach of all. However despite being among the largest professions in India, the education system as whole leaves much to be desired. With large number of the population still remaining illiterate after more than 50 years of independence, the challenge for educationists really remains daunting.

Other than providing immense job satisfaction to those who are really interested in imparting knowledge and dispelling ignorance, a secure professional career with barely any liability of transfer can be other important reasons for joining this profession. Besides benefits such as subsidized fees for children, regular annual vacations, etc. makes a career in teaching appealing especially to women.

Educational Qualification:

Formal training for teaching at primary level and secondary level has become almost compulsory. Most polytechnics and vocational training centers conduct training for pre-primary teachers. The preferred eligibility is class XIIth with
50% marks in aggregate.

At the secondary level, teachers are required to possess a degree in teaching/education. The Bachelor of Education degree is one-year training course for graduates of any discipline. Teachers having B.Ed degree after graduation are called Graduate Trained Teachers (TGT) and those doing B.Ed. after post graduation are called Post Graduate Trained Teachers (PGT). There are separate institutions for special teachers such as teachers of the blind, deaf and dumb, mentally retarded, craft, music etc. These courses are also available through correspondence for employed graduate teachers. For senior secondary level PGTs are preferred.

As per the latest guidelines issued by University Grants Commission (UGC) in
subjects other than fine arts, management, engineering and technology, M.Phil
in a subject is required for appointment as a lecturer at the university level
and promotions depend on further qualifications.  Otherwise a good academic record with at least 55% or an equivalent grade at master’s degree level in the relevant subject from an Indian University or an equivalent degree from a foreign University is needed. Eligibility tests for lecturers (NET) are conducted by UGC. Details on this exam are available under ‘examinations in India’.
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